GUIDELINES FOR PSYCHOANALYTIC TRAINING
2003 (In Russian)
The Institute shall select, train, teach and recommend qualified candidates for Direct Membership of the IPA in those countries of Europe where no training institutes exist to perform these functions. It is assumed that those who become graduates of the Institute (and thus Direct Members of the IPA) will form themselves into Study Groups and they, in turn, will move on towards Provisional and Component Society status.
To train psychoanalysts the Psychoanalytic Institute for Eastern Europe (PIEE) follows the criteria adopted by the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA), which was founded by Sigmund Freud and which gathers together Psychoanalytical Societies from all over the world. Such criteria have been based, since the 1920s, on the tripartite model of training, of which the main elements are:
- personal analysis of the candidate,
- supervisions of the first psychoanalytic treatments,
- theoretical teaching by seminars and schools.
The Institute will propose to the IPA Executive Council those Candidates, who will perform in all these three parts in the best possible way, to become IPA Direct Members.
The Institute aim is to train analysts who are as proficient as those of any other Institute, individually tailoring parts of training and special tools in order to achieve such an aim.
What is emphasized is that the training doesn?t stop at the evaluation, when one becomes an IPA Member, but is a permanent, never-finished task. Following the end of their formal training, analysts continue to improve their analytic competence using many tools: further tranches of personal analysis (sometimes also with a second, personal analysis), further qualified individual or group supervisions, attending theoretical meetings and congresses, systematically reading psychoanalytic literature, regularly joining their colleagues to discuss their own and other?s clinical and theoretical work.
The analytic training within the Institute, which usually takes no less than 6-8 years, develops in the following way.
- Everybody who is living and working in an area, where no established IPA group (Study Group, Provisional or Component Society) is active, and who wants to become an IPA analyst, has basically two ways to realize it. One possibility is, like other people all around the world, to be accepted by any Institute of an IPA Component Society in any country and then fulfil its requirements to become Member of that Society. At the end of this training the Candidate may apply for membership in this Component Society and thus obtain membership in the IPA. In this case the concerned Society?s Institute will provide everything.
- A second possibility of psychoanalytic training is through the Institute, which can lead to IPA Direct Membership. In this case the Institute will take care of the training, of the interviews and of the evaluation. All those who, living and working in an area where no established IPA group does exist, wish to begin a psychoanalytic training, may apply to be registered in the Institute. All registered Registered Analysands and Candidates will perform their training under the umbrella of the Institute, in contact with the Institute Board and its Staff.
- People possessing a University degree, preferably in Medicine or Psychology, who are motivated to become psychoanalysts, may first like to clarify their idea of what psychoanalysis is and to know something more about psychoanalysis. In this case, they may apply to the Associate Director of the Outreach Section of the Institute and attend Summer Schools. Or/and they may ask the Training Section of the Institute for further information.
- When the applicant feels his or her motivation clearly enough, he or she should first contact a training analyst or an experienced analyst, authorized by the Institute. When the project to undertake a personal analysis with training purposes is outlined realistically enough, they should apply to the Institute Training Section, namely to the Associate Director for Individual Training, in order to be interviewed by an ad hoc appointed Committee (formed by two experienced analysts). The task of such an ORIENTATION INTERVIEW is to verify mainly the motivation and to find an agreement with the applicant as regards the feasibility of his or her wish for psychoanalytic training. If the applicant will later adopt a different project of training analysis, before beginning it, he or she should send the new project to the Associate Director for Individual Training in order to get another informed opinion.
- With an accepted project of training, the applicants may apply to the Institute for a financial loan, if it is indispensable to realize their project.
- The applicants, who have passed their Orientation interview, are requested to inform the PIEE Training Section about when they begin their analysis and who their analyst is. Only after this they will be registered as REGISTERED ANALYSANDS.
- All Registered Analysands and Candidates are suggested to choose a MENTOR, to whom they may refer for any information or advice about their training. The available Mentors are all the PIEE Board or Staff Member and the PIEE Advisors. The idea of mentorship is to have an unbiased person to discuss all problems of training and to have an experienced analyst different from the supervisor to whom they can show their clinical work.
- It is expected that the training analysis will be taken with a training psychoanalyst or an IPA Member authorized by the Institute to conduct training analysis, which may be considered valid for a psychoanalytic training. As a rule, training analysis is performed 4 times a week for not less than 600 sessions in total. Training analysis can continue beyond qualification.
- The PIEE respects the absolute confidentiality of the training
analyst-candidate relationship. Therefore no kind of communication, either formal or informal, by the training analyst, pertaining to his/her trainee in analysis, will be requested, required or acceptable with regards to any activity of the PIEE.
- The Institute may authorize a limited number of “shuttle analyses” or “concentrated analyses” in those areas where applicants for training have no opportunity to undergo a standard analysis, due to their geographical isolation or other special circumstances.
- A “shuttle analysis” or a “concentrated analysis” may be performed only with training analysts and should possibly occupy no fewer than 100 sessions a year, for a total of no less than 400 sessions. Admittedly it is a rough estimate and rests on the responsibility of candidates and their training analysts to find their own course and termination.
- When Registered Analysands have the impression (usually discussed and clarified with their analyst too) that their analysis has developed to a certain degree, which allows them a better insight into their inner world, they may apply for their ADMISSION INTERVIEWS. Applications for these interviews should not be made before at least 300 sessions of individual analysis have been done (150 in case of “shuttle” or “concentrated” analysis). During these interviews an ad hoc appointed Committee (formed by two experienced analysts) will evaluate together with the applicant whether it seems appropriate that they begin their first supervised analysis. Also their project for the supervision and for the theoretical teaching will be discussed. If the outcome of these second interviews is positive, the applicant becomes officially a CANDIDATE OF THE INSTITUTE.
- The Candidate will do intense use of SEMINARS for theoretical teaching in IPA Psychoanalytic Institutes, in the yearly “PIEE Candidates Seminar” (lasting a week), in special seminar activities for PIEE candidates, in the Candidate sections at the PIEE Summer School, in recognized seminar activities organized by the Local Groups, etc. All the Candidates are suggested to have also some teaching on child and adolescent psychoanalysis (attending, for example, the Summer School for Child and Adolescent Psychoanalysis in Dubrovnik). Theoretical seminar teaching should last four years for a total of 360 hours. (The Institute Training Section for Seminar activity will give more detailed information about different possibilities, where theoretical teaching may be attended.)
- The Candidates may begin their first psychoanalytic treatment four times a week under SUPERVISION. After a certain time, having discussed it with their first supervisor, the Candidates may begin their second analytic treatment in supervision with a second supervisor. It is recommended to discuss the matter with the mentor too.
- One of the two supervised treatments may be performed with a child or an adolescent patient. In this case the supervisor should be a training analyst qualified for child and/or adolescent analysis.
- Supervisions may be performed by training analysts or by very experienced analysts, who can be appointed by the Institute. As a rule supervisions are weekly, and continue for at least two years each, for a total number of 40 supervision sessions a year, which makes 160 in total for both cases. It is recommended that the Candidate and the supervisor discuss the choice of the case to be supervised before the treatment begins.
- The Candidates are requested to inform the PIEE Training Section about when they begin their supervision and who their supervisors are. They are also recommended to discuss with their supervisors whether is the patient, they are going to treat in supervision, adapt for training purposes.
- Due to special circumstances supervision may be conducted also by email or fax, though a certain number of face-to-face supervisions are essential.
- Candidates, who have treated their supervision cases during their shuttle analysis, are recommended to have a third supervision with a patient, which treatment is not periodically interrupted because of his analyst?s shuttle travelling. This may be a group supervision too and may be done also after they have been accepted as IPA Members.
- During the whole training it is assumed that the Candidate will actively participate in his or her home psychoanalytic group activities, in the Institute activities, especially to the yearly Institute Candidates? Seminar, and also in international psychoanalytic events, such as the activities of other IPA Institutes and Societies (as guests).
- It is recommended that a Candidate may be acquainted with and have a certain experience with psychiatric patients, working or volunteering for a certain time in a Psychiatric institution.
- After the end of both supervisions and of the Seminar theoretical teaching, the Candidate may apply for IPA DIRECT MEMBERSHIP. The application is sent to the Institute Associate Director for Individual Training, with enclosed Curriculum Vitae. The Candidate will be informed of who will be his or her evaluators and he or she will send them the written reports on the two supervised cases. One copy is sent to the Associate Director for Individual Training too. (The Institute Training Section for Individual Training will give more detailed information about how these clinical reports may be written.) The evaluators will receive the reports of the supervisors as well and will then discuss with the Candidate his or her work. If approved, the Institute will propose to the IPA Executive Council to put the Candidate?s appointment as Direct Member on the agenda of the next IPA Business Meeting, where it will be voted. When voted on positively, the Candidate will become officially an IPA Direct Member. The Business Meeting is held every second year during the IPA Congress.
- In countries, where no Training Analysts have yet been appointed, the PIEE Board may authorize some IPA Members to perform training analysis with applicants who have positively passed their Orientation interview. Members may ask such authorization, at least one year after their election at the IPA Business Meeting, presenting a written report on a recent analytic treatment, which should not be one of the two presented for their evaluation for IPA Membership. The training analysis, which they will be authorized to perform, should be standard analysis and not shuttle ones.
All these guidelines have not to be taken so rigidly as to lose some good opportunities (e.g. if somebody is in shuttle analysis in an area where he may attend good seminar activities or good supervisions, which will later be impossible in his homeland, it has to be discussed with the Institute, which may accept that these parts of the training begin earlier than provided for by the standard schedule). The Institute will apply these guidelines in a flexible way, considering that the training in new areas is rather difficult to perform on a completely standardized basis. Productive alternative views are always welcome and will be jointly discussed and evaluated Therefore some exceptions on some points could be accepted, if there are reasons to do so. But it is recommended to the Candidates to avoid realizing a curriculum in which every point will be on or below the minimum standards, while it will be appreciated if the minimal performance on some points will be somehow balanced by richer content on other points.
In a certain way the PIEE is a challenge and an experiment. To be successful, registered analysands/candidates should be in a higher co-operation with the Institute (including assessments of analytic development, monitoring the efficiency of the institute, surveys, and developing creative ideas).
Many Candidates had begun their training at a time when some points of these guidelines were not yet in use (e.g. first or second interviews where not required or could be performed in other Institutes). This will be considered from case to case, considering that rules must not be changed for the past. When the registration forms of the Institute?s Registered Analysands and Candidates arrive at the Training Section, the Institute will send to everybody the confirmation of his or her position and the requirements to which he or she is expected to conform for the future part of the training.
It is recommended not to treat psychoanalytically patients (4 times a week, on the couch etc.) until the first two supervisions have been ongoing for a sufficient amount of time. Only psychoanalytic psychotherapy should be practised until that time. This is to avoid the possibility that wild analytic practice could be encouraged just by IPA Candidates (or Registered Analysands).
30 August 2003
PIEE GUIDELINES FOR CHILD AND ADOLESCENT PSYCHOANALYTICAL TRAINING
1. Within the PIEE the requirements to become a psychoanalyst recognized by the IPA as qualified to treat psychoanalytically child and/or adolescent patients are the following.
2. The training analysis is the same one performed to become an IPA Member qualified to treat adults.
Application. The PIEE Candidates, who have already passed their admission interview, or IPA Direct Members may apply to the PIEE Training Section for an additional training to qualify as psychoanalysts for children and/or adolescents. The PIEE Training Section will present the applicant to the PIEE Committee for the Development of Child and Adolescent Psychoanalysis in Eastern Europe (CODECAPE). The applicant will meet with a member of that Committee to discuss the personal prerequisites which enhance the ability to work with children and adolescents.
3. Theoretical and clinical teaching program. The applicant will discuss with the Committee to plan his or her theoretical and clinical teaching program. This usually lasts four years and includes the yearly participation to the PIEE Child and Adolescent School. The theoretical and clinical teaching program may not begin before the end of the first year of the theoretical and clinical teaching for adult psychoanalysis and then may be performed in parallel with the adult psychoanalysis training. The trainee will choose as a Mentor one of the members of the PIEE CODECAPE.
4. Supervision. Two supervised treatments are required: one child and one adolescent. Analytic experience with a female and a male is recommended though not required as is a third case with a different age child. One of the two cases may be the same presented for the final evaluation at the end of the adult psychoanalytic training. The supervision should start at least one year after the beginning of the theoretical teaching and should last two years for each case.
There are requested about 40 supervision sessions a year for each case. If indispensable, fax and email supervision is acceptable too, though at least 2-3 sessions face to face a year are required. The supervisors must be IPA qualified child analysts accepted by the CODECAPE. The patients should be treated 4 times a week, except if the CODECAP agrees that a 3 times treatment could be acceptable for this patient and for training purposes. The supervisors must send to the CODECAPE a yearly report on the supervision. To complete the educational process a supervision of the end of one of the two analysis is highly recommended. It could be completed after the graduation.
5. Final evaluation. At the end of the theoretical and clinical teaching program and of both supervisions the trainee, who at that time should have already completed her/his adult training and become an IPA Member, may apply to the PIEE Training Section to be evaluated, presenting his/her CV and a written report on the supervised cases.
Both supervisors must also have presented their reports on the supervisions. The applicant will be evaluated by two members of the PIEE CODECAPE, who will then report to the PIEE Training Section.
6. Some teaching activities may be organized at the other PIEE Schools too.
7. The CODECAPE will provide a reading list for the trainees.
8. The PIEE will try to provide some loans or grants, when needed, to support the development of the child analytic training in some areas.